Alloy: Alloys are created by combining two or more metals to form a new material, usually to obtain superior characteristics, such as increased hardness. Alloys may also be made to alter color. Examples of alloys include 18K and 14K gold.
Aigrette: A jewel-encrusted ornament designed to be worn on a cap or as a hairpin, usually in the shape of a feather.
A’Jour: An open-style setting designed to leave pavilion facets open to light. This is a popular setting style often used in halo designs to expose accent stones to more light.
Annealing: A metalworking process used to make metals more pliable through the repeated process of heating and cooling.
Arabesque: An ornamental design or decoration characterized by a technique involving intertwined leaves, branches, floral work and flowing lines.
Anklet: A form of jewelry designed to be worn around the ankle.
Ar Deco: A style of art and jewelry that peaked from the 1920s to the 1930s. Art Deco designs feature bold, vibrant colors and with geometric shapes and patterns.
Art Nouveau: A style of art and jewelry popular from around 1890 to 1914. Art Nouveau designs feature decorative, linear, free-flowing curves based on natural forms.
Assaying: A process used to determine the quality or quantity of a precious metal.
Assay Hallmark: An official mark or series of marks found on jewelry, indicating the institution that assayed the quality or quantity of metal in a piece of metal or jewelry.
Bangles: Rigid bracelets, usually from metal, wood, or plastic, are referred to as bangles or bangle bracelets. They can be smooth, textured or set with stones. They are worn in groups so that arm movement causes them to make a gracious sound rather like the clinking of wind chimes.
Bezel Facets: On round brilliant diamonds, these are the eight large kite-shaped facets on the crown. Also called top main facet.
Brilliance: Describes the reflections of white light coming from a diamond.
Brilliant Cut Diamond: Round diamond with 58 facets. Round brilliant cut diamonds are extremely brilliant.
Carat: The standard unit of measurement of the weight of a diamond. One carat equals 1/5 of a gram or 1/142 of an ounce. 1 carat=100 points.
Cavity: An inclusion consisting of a large or deep opening in the diamond.
Charm Bracelet: A charm bracelet is an item of jewelry worn around the wrist. It carries personal charms: decorative pendants or trinkets which are signifiers of important things in the wearer’s life.
Choker: A necklace that is 14-16 inches in length and sits high on the neck.
Clarity: The degree to which a diamond is free from blemishes. Clarity is graded on a scale from Flawless to Imperfect.
Clarity Enhancement: Any process used to improve the clarity of a diamond. This may include filling fractures and cavities with glass or resin.
Cleavage: A break in a diamond that is parallel to one of its crystallographic planes. Cleavage may be caused by inherent internal strain or by a sharp blow. The break may extend to the surface of the diamond.
Crown: The part of the diamond above the girdle. It consists of the table and the crown facets below it.
Crown Angle: The angle measured between the girdle plane and the bezel facets. Along with the table size, the crown angle helps determine the amount of dispersion displayed by the diamond.
Crown Height: The part of the diamond that is above the girdle.
Crown Height Percentage: The crown height expressed as a percentage of the average girdle diameter.
Crystal: A type of inclusion. A crystal can be a mineral deposit trapped inside the diamond.
Culet: A small face forming the bottom of a faceted gem.
Cut: The cut (make) of a diamond refers to the proportions given to the polished diamond by the diamond cutter. The cut is the most important of the 4’Cs (cut, color, clarity, carat) in determining
the diamond’s overall beauty.
Depth: The distance between the table and the culet as measured in millimeters.
Dispersion: The fiery rainbow colors emanating from a diamond as white light is broken up into colors.
Eye-Clean: Describes a diamond that has no inclusions visible through the table to the unaided eye.
Facets: The polished planes on the surface of a diamond.
Feather: A fracture in a diamond that looks like a white feather.
Fire: The rainbow colors seen in a diamond as a result of dispersion.
Fracture: A chip or break on a diamond that is not in the direction of a cleavage plane. Irregular in shape, fractures usually appear step-like or splinter-like.
Fracture Filling: A diamond enhancement process whereby a cavity in a diamond is filled with an artificial substance.
Girdle: The outer edge of a diamond that forms a band around the stone. The girdle can be faceted, polished, or unpolished
Girdle Thickness: The measurement of the percentage of the diamond’s average girdle diameter.
Grading Report: Issued by an independent laboratory, it is sometimes called a “certificate,” although labs do not actually “certify” diamonds. The grading report should accurately describe the proportions, weight, color, clarity, symmetry, polish, and possible fluorescence seen in the diamond. Some labs, such as GIA and AGS, are felt by many experts to be more consistent and stringent in their grading than other labs.
Inclusion: A naturally occurring imperfection in a diamond. Some examples are feathers, crystals, needles, clouds, and pinpoints.
Lariat Necklace: A lariat is a very, very long variation on the rope, without a clasp, often worn draped multiple times around the neck; the ends can be crossed over, looped, or knotted in various ways. This type of necklace sometimes incorporates a loop at one or both ends to allow it to be worn in the style of alasso, or it may be worn doubled over with the ends passed through the loop formed in the middle.
Laser Drilling: A diamond enhancement technique whereby a laser is used to drill to an inclusion, which is then bleached to enhance the diamond’s appearance.
Lower-Girdle Facet: The facets on the pavilion of a round brilliant just below the girdle.
Matinee Necklace: A matinee length necklace is 22 in to 23 inches long – typically a single strand that rests at the top of the cleavage.
Opera Necklace: An opera necklace is 30 in to 35 inches long and sits at the breastbone.
Pavilion: The portion of the diamond below the girdle.
Pavilion Angle: The angle measured between the girdle and the pavilion main facet.
Pavilion Main Facets: The eight facets found on the pavilion of a round brilliant diamond. Their points touch the girdle.
Pinpoints: Very small inclusions in a diamond.
Point: 1/100 of a carat. For example, a 1/4 carat diamond weighs 25 points.
Polish: The way the cutter finishes the facets on a diamond. Labs grade finish from poor to excellent.
Princess Necklace: A princess necklace is 18 to 20 inches long, longer than a choker, but shorter than a matinee.
Rope Necklace: A rope necklace is any necklace longer than opera length.
Scintillation: Sparkle. The tiny flashes of light noticeable in a diamond when the observer moves his/her head.
Shape: There are eight common diamond shapes: round, marquise, pear, oval, heart, princess/radiant, emerald, and trillion. There are also other shapes created and sold by manufacturers.
Star Facet: One of the eight triangular facets found on the upper crown section (next to the table) of a brilliant-cut diamond.
Symmetry: Labs grade symmetry from poor to excellent, based on the diamond’s proportions and the relation of one facet to another (meet-point faceting).
Table: The largest facet that sits on top of a diamond. This is where most of the light enters and exits a diamond.